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Parenting Orders

What is a Parenting Order, its obligations, consequences and who can help you?

Parenting Orders

In this section, we will explain what is a Parenting Order, its obligations, consequences and who can help you. We also address the question of can grandparents apply to see the kids?

There are courses, programs and services in the community that can help you:

- reach an agreement with the other party

- understand your parental responsibilities, and

- adjust to and follow court orders.

For more information about these options, go to, call 1800 050 321 or visit a Family Relationship Centre near you.

Relationships Australia have excellent information and courses on Parenting for parents with children from babies to teenagers to assist you to develop a parenting order and parenting skills for single parents. We heartily recommend their services.

A court may order you to attend a post-separation parenting program. You must attend. If you fail to go to a program as ordered, without reasonable excuse, you may be in breach of the parenting order and be penalised.

What is a parenting order?

A parenting order is a set of orders made by a court about parenting arrangements for a child. A court can make a parenting order based on an agreement between the parties (consent orders) or after a court hearing or trial. When a parenting order is made, each person affected by the order must follow it.

A parenting order may deal with one or more of the following:

- with whom the child will live

- how much time the child will spend with each parent

- and with other people, such as grandparents

- the allocation of parental responsibility

- how the child will communicate with a parent they do not live with, or other people

- any other aspect of the care, welfare or development of the child.

A parenting order can require the parties to follow certain steps before applying to a court to change an order. It can also state the process for resolving disputes that arise from the order.

If the parenting order provides that two or more people have equal shared parental responsibility, any decision about a major long-term issue in relation to a child must be made jointly. This requires each person to consult with the other person and make a genuine effort to reach a joint decision.

Note - The status of a parenting order may be altered if a parenting plan is developed by both parties in the future.

For more information about parenting plans, go to, call 1800 050 321 or visit a Family Relationship Centre near you. It is important that you read this information.

Attached to a parenting order will be information for parents and other people, such as grandparents, who are subject to that parenting order.

It will contain information about courses and services that can help you understand your responsibilities, and the options available to ensure that the parenting order is complied with.

The order remains in force until a new parenting order or parenting plan changes it in some way.

Even if the needs or circumstances of you, the child or the other party change, the court order applies until it is formally changed by a court or, in some situations, you enter into a parenting plan with the other party.

Sometimes people talk to each other about changing arrangements set out in a parenting order. These talks do not change the order. If you and the other party agree to change the arrangements, you may enter into a parenting plan or apply for consent orders that vary the existing orders.

For more information about consent orders, go to joint Family Law Court and Federal Magistrates' Court site:, call 1300 352 000 or visit a family law registry near you.

If you want to change a parenting order and the other party does not agree, family dispute resolution can help you and the other party work through your disagreement. Resolving issues this way is less formal than going to court and should cost less in money, time and emotion. If an agreement cannot be reached, you may consider applying to a court for orders.

Get Legal Advice

You should seek legal advice before deciding what to do.

A lawyer can help you understand your legal rights and responsibilities, and explain how the law applies to your case. A lawyer can also help you reach an agreement without going to court. You can seek legal advice from a legal aid office, community legal centre or private law firm.

Court staff can help you with questions about court forms and the court process, but cannot give you legal advice.

If the Parenting Order is Breached

A court can only penalise someone for failing to comply with a parenting order, which has not been altered by a parenting plan, if another person files an application alleging the person did not comply with the order. After considering all the facts of the case and applying the law, a court may decide:

- the alleged contravention was not established

- the contravention was established but there was a reasonable excuse

- there was a less serious contravention without reasonable excuse, or

- there was a more serious contravention without reasonable excuse.

If a court finds that you have failed to comply with a parenting order without reasonable excuse, it may impose a penalty. Depending on the situation and the type of contravention, a court may:

- vary the primary order

- order you to attend a post separation parenting program

- compensate for time lost with a child as a result of the contravention

- require you to enter into a bond

- order you to pay all or some of the legal costs of the other parties

- order you to pay compensation for reasonable

- expenses lost as a result of the contravention

- require you to participate in community service

- order you to pay a fine

- order you to a sentence of imprisonment.

In addition to these orders, a court may also adjourn the case to allow you or the other party to apply for a further parenting order.

The penalties are listed in Division 13A in the Family Law Act. To view the Act, go to:

Family Law Act

For more information about compliance, see the fact sheet 'Compliance with parenting orders'.

Location and Recovery Orders

If you breach a parenting order and you cannot be found, a court may also make a location order. This order requires other people or organisations, including government departments, to give any information they have about where you and the child may be located.

If you breach a parenting order by failing to return the child as required, a court may also make a recovery order. This is an order issued to the Marshal of the Court, all officers of the Australian Federal Police and all state and territory police officers to find and recover the child. The order may also allow a search of any vehicle, vessel, aircraft or any other premises where the child may be found.
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